Authorization / User Provisioning
User Provisioning is a type of authorization vulnerability (CWE-732) that arises when a user is granted access to services, resources, or information beyond the scope of their job role or authorized permissions. It occurs when an application does not properly validate the access privileges of a user, granting them more access than they should have. This vulnerability is especially prevalent in web and API applications, as authentication and authorization controls are often left out of the development process. (OWASP Testing Guide, 2019)
This vulnerability can lead to serious security risks, such as data breaches, malicious actors accessing privileged information, or confidential data being exposed. The risk of this vulnerability can be assessed using the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) metrics, which rate the impact, exploitability, and scope of the vulnerability.
The best way to mitigate this vulnerability is to use Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) to create and manage user roles and permissions. RBAC ensures that users are granted only the minimum access privileges necessary to complete their job, and can be configured to automatically revoke privileges when a user changes roles. Additionally, application owners should use authentication and authorization controls to ensure that users have the correct permissions for their role.